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nanotechnology2

March 30, 2013
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The Evolution of MicroElectronics

The last 25 years have witnessed astonishing advances in the fields of microelectronics and computation. The first integrated circuit microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was able to perform roughly 5000 binary-coded decimal additions per second with a total power consumption of about 10 W (~500 additions per joule) in 1971, whereas modern microprocessors can perform ~3 x [10.sup.6] additions per joule. The 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (1) calls for an additional factor of [10.sup.3] increase in the computational efficiency by the year 2012. If this goal is attained, then performance of the silicon-based integrated circuit will have improved by nearly seven orders of magnitude in 40 years, using energy consumed per operation as a metric, with a single manufacturing paradigm. Although complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is predicted by many researchers to run into significant physical limitations shortly after 2010 (2), the energy cost of an addition operation will still be nowhere near any fundamental physical limit. A crude estimate of the energy required to add two 10-digit decimal numbers, based on a thermodynamic analysis of nonreversible Boolean logic steps (3, 4) is ~100*k*T*1n(2), which implies that 3 x [10.sup.18] additions per joule can be performed at room temperature without any reversible steps.…

nano1

March 30, 2013
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What is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology Definition and The Medical Field

The term nanotechnology is rarely used and even less understood.  So what exactly is nanotechnology?  To get to the root meaning, lets take a look and the origin of the word.  It comes from the greek language and it can be interpreted to mean “dwarf”.  While many people immediately think of product miniaturization in products like cell phones, laptops, tablets, and computer chips, the more commonly known nanotechnology deals with an area of scientific advancement that deals with microscopic particles.   This perfectly describes this “field of science” since it deals with atoms and matter than can’t be seen by most microscopes let alone the naked eye.  In fact, this field of science wasn’t advanced until the invention of microscopes which were powerful enough to give a good inside look in the 1980’s.  Anyways, nanotechnology deals with manipulating and changing at extremely small scales.  Essentially it deals with the overall knowledge of small atoms and molecules which make up the building blocks of life.…